January 23, 2024  —  Acronis

The Anatomy of a cyberattack: Insights into modern security threats

Table of contents
What this article will cover:
Understanding cyberattacks
What is a cyberattack?
Anatomy of a cyberattack
Common types of cyberattacks and their impact
Modern security threats: What to watch for
Advanced persistent threats (APTs)
Supply chain attacks
Ransomware evolution
Internet of things (IoT) vulnerabilities
Quantum computing threats
The role of MSPs in preventing cyberattacks
10 Best practices for cybersecurity
Cybersecurity tools and solutions for protection
Antivirus and anti-malware software
Intrusion detection systems (IDS) and intrusion prevention systems (IPS)
Virtual private networks (VPNs)
Endpoint detection and response (EDR)
Security information and event management (SIEM)
Encryption tools
Web application firewalls (WAF)
Identity and access management (IAM)
Threat intelligence platforms
Data loss prevention (DLP)
Network segmentation
Navigating the aftermath of a cyberattack
Summing it up
Acronis Cyber Protect Cloud
for Service Providers

The threat of cyberattacks looms larger than ever, casting a shadow over managed service providers (MSPs), enterprises and home users alike. Navigating the intricate web of modern security threats requires a comprehensive understanding of the stages and complexities inherent in a cyberattack.

In this article, we’ll journey through the anatomy of cyberattacks, looking into the various phases that characterize a typical assault. From initial infiltration to the potential aftermath, we unravel the layers of these digital threats, equipping MSPs, enterprise users and consumers with the knowledge needed to fortify their defenses.

What this article will cover:

●      Understanding cyberattacks

●      What is a cyberattack?

●      Anatomy of a cyberattack

●      Common types of cyberattacks and their impact

●      Modern security threats: What to watch for

●      The role of MSPs in preventing cyberattacks

●      Best practices for cybersecurity

●      Cybersecurity tools and solutions for protection

●      Navigating the aftermath of a cyberattack

Understanding cyberattacks

A cyberattack involves a purposeful and malicious effort to compromise the integrity, confidentiality or availability of computer systems, networks or digital data. Orchestrated by individuals, groups or even nation-states, these attacks are driven by a variety of harmful motives. A nuanced comprehension of cyberattacks is imperative for bolstering defenses against the ever-changing landscape of modern digital threats.

Within this multifaceted domain, various types of cyberattacks manifest with distinctive methodologies and objectives.

Phishing attacks, among the most prevalent, employ deceptive tactics to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information through seemingly legitimate emails, messages or websites.

Malware assaults encompass a range of threats. Ransomware, for instance, encrypts files and demands a ransom for their release, posing a significant threat to individuals and organizations alike.

Denial of service (DoS) and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks seek to disrupt the normal functioning of a network or online service by overwhelming it with an influx of traffic, while MitM (man-in-the-middle) attacks involve intercepting and potentially altering communication between two parties.

By understanding the diverse tactics employed in cyberattacks, individuals, IT providers and enterprises can position themselves to implement effective protection strategies. This begins by understanding the dynamic nature of digital threats and the importance of staying informed and proactive.

What is a cyberattack?

A cyberattack is a deliberate, malicious, and often clandestine attempt to compromise digital systems, networks or data. The primary objectives of cyberattacks vary, ranging from causing disruption and extracting valuable information to gaining unauthorized access to sensitive systems. Unlike traditional forms of warfare, cyberattacks operate in the intangible realm of cyberspace, using a range of technology to exploit vulnerabilities and achieve malicious goals.

At its core, a cyberattack involves the unauthorized manipulation or exploitation of digital assets. This manipulation can take various forms, such as the infiltration of computer systems, the compromise of network security, or the deployment of malicious software. Cybercriminals leverage sophisticated techniques to exploit weaknesses in software, hardware, or human behavior, exploiting vulnerabilities that may go unnoticed until the attack has already begun.

Anatomy of a cyberattack

To understand the intricacies of a cyberattack, we must dissect its various stages. A typical cyberattack can be broken down into several key phases, providing insight into the malicious actor’s tactics and the progression of their assault.

1. Reconnaissance

The first phase involves the bad actor gathering information about the target. This recon may include identifying vulnerabilities in the target's systems, mapping out network architecture, and researching potential points of entry. Attackers often leverage publicly available information, social engineering, or scanning tools to find these weaknesses.

2. Weaponization

This phase involves crafting or obtaining malicious software, such as viruses or malware, tailored to exploit the identified vulnerabilities. The goal is to create a potent weapon that can be effectively deployed against the target's systems.

3. Delivery

In this stage, the attacker delivers the weaponized payload to the target's network or devices. Delivery methods vary, ranging from email attachments and malicious links to exploiting software vulnerabilities. The objective is to infiltrate the target and establish a foothold within the network.

4. Exploitation

During this stage, the attacker exploits vulnerabilities to gain unauthorized access. This may involve taking advantage of software bugs, weak passwords or unpatched systems. Once inside, the attacker seeks to escalate privileges and navigate the network undetected.

5. Installation

After gaining access, the attacker installs additional tools or malware to maintain persistence within the compromised system. This ensures continued control and the ability to execute further actions, such as exfiltrating sensitive data or launching additional attacks.

6. Command and control (C2)

Establishing a command and control infrastructure allows the attacker to remotely manage the compromised systems. This phase involves creating a communication channel between the attacker's infrastructure and the compromised network, allowing for the execution of commands, data exfiltration and ongoing control.

7. Actions on objectives

With control established, the attacker is free to pursue their primary objectives. This may involve data theft, disruption of services or other malicious activities based on the attacker's motivations.

Common types of cyberattacks and their impact

Here, we explore the most common types of cyberattacks and the ramifications they can have on their targets:

Phishing attacks

Phishing attacks are attempts to trick individuals into divulging sensitive information such as usernames, passwords or financial details. The impact can range from identity theft to unauthorized access to personal or corporate accounts.

Malware assaults

Malicious software, or malware, comes in various forms, including viruses, worms, trojans and ransomware. The impact of malware attacks can be severe, causing data loss, system disruptions and financial damage. Ransomware, in particular, can encrypt critical files, demanding a ransom for their release, crippling the target for an extended period of time.

Denial of service (DoS) and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks

These attacks aim to disrupt normal operations by overwhelming a network, server, or online service with a flood of traffic. The impact includes downtime, loss of revenue for online businesses and a degradation of user experience.

Man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks

MitM attacks involve intercepting and potentially altering communication between two parties. The impact extends to the theft of sensitive information, such as login credentials or financial data. When organizations experience compromised data integrity, it often leads to a loss of trust among users and clients.

SQL injection attacks

SQL injection attacks target the vulnerabilities in database-driven applications. The impact includes unauthorized access to sensitive databases, manipulation of data and potential data breaches. Organizations relying on databases to store sensitive information, such as customer details, are particularly vulnerable to these types of attacks.

Zero-day exploits

Zero-day exploits target vulnerabilities in software that are unknown to the software vendor. The impact can be severe, as attackers can exploit these vulnerabilities before patches or updates are available.

Social engineering attacks

Social engineering attacks manipulate individuals into sharing confidential information through psychological manipulation. The impact includes unauthorized access, identity theft and compromised organizational security. Individuals and organizations alike are susceptible to social engineering tactics.

Modern security threats: What to watch for

As the digital security landscape continues to evolve, so do the tactics employed by cyber adversaries. Information is key, and staying vigilant about current and emerging cybersecurity threats is paramount in fortifying defenses. Below, we’ll take a closer look at some of the potential future challenges in the realm of cybersecurity.

Advanced persistent threats (APTs)

According to the Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report, "Advanced persistent threats, or APTs, are characterized by a highly sophisticated and prolonged cyber espionage campaign, often state-sponsored. These attacks aim to gain unauthorized access to sensitive information over an extended period without detection."

APTs represent a growing concern as nation-states and organized cybercriminal groups employ more and more sophisticated techniques against high-value targets. These attacks often involve a combination of advanced malware, social engineering, and persistent surveillance to compromise sensitive data.

Supply chain attacks

Supply chain attacks have gained prominence as threat actors exploit vulnerabilities in the interconnected network of suppliers and service providers. By compromising a trusted entity within the supply chain, attackers can infiltrate multiple organizations, emphasizing the importance of robust supply chain security measures.

The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) warns, "Supply chain compromises can impact multiple organizations across various sectors, introducing the potential for cascading effects as the compromise spreads." This effect can be seen in recent attacks where trusted IT vendors were infiltrated and used to gain access to a large number of end-users.

Ransomware evolution

Ransomware attacks continue to evolve in complexity and scale. The use of double extortion tactics adds an extra layer of urgency for victims, amplifying the potential impact on organizations that face not only data encryption but also the threat of sensitive information exposure.

The 2021 Cyber Threatscape Report by Accenture states, "Ransomware actors are becoming increasingly sophisticated, employing tactics like double extortion, where stolen data is not only encrypted but also threatened to be released publicly unless a ransom is paid."

Internet of things (IoT) vulnerabilities

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), "Many IoT devices are not built with security in mind, making them vulnerable targets for exploitation."

As such, with the increasing adoption of IoT devices, the attack surface for cyber adversaries expands. Insecure IoT devices can be exploited to gain unauthorized access to networks, leading to potential breaches and compromises of connected systems.

Quantum computing threats

The advent of quantum computing poses a future threat to traditional encryption methods as quantum processors will be exponentially more capable of carrying out brute-force attacks. Organizations need to anticipate this paradigm shift and prepare for the development and adoption of quantum-resistant encryption to ensure the ongoing security of their data.

The role of MSPs in preventing cyberattacks

Managed service providers (MSPs) play a pivotal role in today's dynamic cybersecurity landscape, serving as strategic partners for businesses seeking to fortify their digital environments and mitigate the ever-present risk of cyberthreats. Here, we explore the many ways in which IT providers contribute to enhancing cybersecurity for businesses.

●      Proactive threat monitoring

MSPs employ advanced threat intelligence tools and continuous monitoring to detect potential security threats before they escalate. By staying ahead of emerging threats and vulnerabilities, managed IT providers can implement proactive measures to safeguard businesses against evolving cyber risks.

●      Robust endpoint security

MSPs enhance endpoint security by deploying and managing comprehensive antivirus solutions, firewalls and intrusion detection/prevention systems. This ensures that all devices connected to the network, from desktops to mobile devices, are fortified against potential cyberthreats.

●      Regular security audits and assessments

MSPs conduct regular security audits and assessments to identify vulnerabilities within the digital infrastructure. Security-focused IT providers will conduct penetration testing and vulnerability assessments to uncover potential weaknesses and implement corrective measures.

●      Effective patch management

MSPs ensure that all software and systems are up to date with the latest security patches. Timely application of patches is critical in closing potential entry points for cybercriminals, reducing the risk of exploitation through known vulnerabilities.

●      Comprehensive data backup and recovery

MSPs can implement robust data backup and recovery solutions to safeguard against data loss caused by cyber incidents, such as ransomware attacks. Regular backups ensure that businesses can quickly recover critical data in the event of a security breach.

●      Employee training and awareness

Many MSPs contribute to building a cybersecurity-aware culture within organizations by providing training programs and awareness campaigns for employees. Educating staff about phishing, social engineering, and other cyberthreats strengthens the first line of defense.

●      Secure network architecture

MSPs design and manage secure network architectures that include firewalls, intrusion detection systems and virtual private networks (VPNs). This approach helps businesses create a robust perimeter defense against unauthorized access and potential intrusions.

●      Incident response planning

MSPs collaborate with businesses to develop and implement incident response plans. In the unfortunate event of a security incident, having a well-defined response plan ensures a swift and organized reaction to mitigate the impact and prevent further compromise.

●      Compliance management

Managed IT service providers assist businesses in adhering to industry-specific and regulatory compliance requirements. Ensuring compliance not only enhances overall security but also protects businesses from legal and financial consequences associated with noncompliance.

●      24/7 Security operations center (SOC) monitoring

MSPs often employ security operations centers (SOCs) to provide continuous monitoring of security events. This allows for real-time threat detection and immediate response to potential security incidents, reducing the dwell time of attackers within the network.

Without a doubt, MSPs serve as invaluable partners in the ongoing battle against cyberthreats. By leveraging their expertise, businesses can establish a proactive and comprehensive cybersecurity strategy, ultimately ensuring a resilient digital environment capable of withstanding the evolving tactics of cyber adversaries.

10 Best practices for cybersecurity

For those who may lack the resources of an in-house IT department or the support of a managed service provider, safeguarding against cyberthreats requires a proactive and informed approach. This guide outlines essential best practices that individuals and organizations without dedicated IT support can adopt to enhance their cybersecurity posture.

1. Regular software updates

Ensure that all software, including operating systems, antivirus programs and applications, is regularly updated. Software updates often contain patches to address security vulnerabilities, and timely installations can close potential avenues for cyberattacks.

2. Strong password policies and MFA

Enforce robust password practices, including the use of complex and unique passwords for each account. Consider implementing multi-factor authentication (MFA) wherever possible to add an extra layer of security.

3. Employee training and awareness

Educate all users about cybersecurity threats and best practices. Regular training sessions on topics like phishing awareness and social engineering can empower individuals to recognize and avoid potential threats.

4. Endpoint protection

Install reputable antivirus and anti-malware software on all devices, including computers, laptops, and mobile devices. Regularly scan for and remove any malicious software to prevent potential security breaches.

5. Secure Wi-Fi networks

Ensure that Wi-Fi networks are secured with strong encryption and a unique, complex password. Avoid using default router credentials and consider implementing network segmentation for an added layer of protection.

6. Data backup and recovery

Regularly backup critical data to secure locations, either on external drives or cloud-based services. This precautionary measure ensures that data can be restored in the event of a ransomware attack or data loss incident.

7. Least privilege access

Limit user access to the minimum necessary for their roles. Adopt the principle of least privilege to reduce the potential impact of a security breach by restricting unauthorized access to sensitive systems and data.

8. Mobile device security

Implement security measures on mobile devices, such as passcodes, biometric authentication and remote wipe capabilities. This helps protect sensitive information in case a mobile device is lost or stolen.

9. Incident response plan

Develop and document an incident response plan outlining the steps to be taken in the event of a security incident. Having a well-defined plan can minimize the impact of a breach and facilitate a quick and organized response.

10. Regular security audits

Conduct periodic security audits or assessments to identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses in the digital infrastructure. This proactive approach allows for the timely implementation of corrective measures and enhanced protection strategies.

By adopting these digital security best practices, individuals and organizations without dedicated IT support can significantly enhance their cybersecurity resilience. In an ever-evolving threat landscape, staying informed, proactive, and vigilant is key to safeguarding against potential cyber risks.

Cybersecurity tools and solutions for protection

The dynamic nature of cybersecurity threats demands a versatile array of tools and solutions to protect digital environments. From defending against malware to guarding sensitive data during transmission, each tool plays a role in creating a resilient, layered defense against cyberthreats.

Antivirus and anti-malware software

These tools are designed to detect, prevent and remove malicious software, including viruses, worms and trojans. Regular updates and real-time scanning are fundamental features to stay ahead of evolving threats.


Firewalls act as a barrier between a trusted internal network and untrusted external networks, monitoring and controlling incoming and outgoing traffic based on predetermined security rules. They are essential for preventing unauthorized access and potential cyber intrusions.

Intrusion detection systems (IDS) and intrusion prevention systems (IPS)

IDS monitors network activities for suspicious patterns, while IPS takes proactive measures to block or mitigate identified threats. Together, they enhance security by detecting and responding to potential threats.

Virtual private networks (VPNs)

VPNs establish secure, encrypted connections over the internet, ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of data during transmission. They are crucial for secure communication and remote access.

Endpoint detection and response (EDR)

EDR solutions focus on monitoring and responding to advanced threats on individual devices or endpoints. They provide real-time analysis of endpoint activities to detect and mitigate security incidents.

Security information and event management (SIEM)

SIEM solutions aggregate and analyze log data from various sources across a network. By correlating information and identifying patterns, SIEM helps detect anomalous activities and respond to security incidents in real time.

Encryption tools

Encryption tools use algorithms to convert information into a secure format that can only be deciphered with the appropriate key. They ensure the confidentiality of data, both at rest and in motion.

Web application firewalls (WAF)

WAFs protect web applications by filtering and monitoring HTTP traffic between a web application and the internet. They block common web application attacks, enhancing the security of online assets.

Identity and access management (IAM)

IAM solutions manage user identities and control access to digital resources. By enforcing least privilege access and proper authentication, IAM minimizes the risk of unauthorized access and insider threats.

Threat intelligence platforms

Threat intelligence platforms gather and analyze data on emerging cyberthreats. By providing actionable insights into current threats and attack vectors, they empower organizations to proactively defend against potential risks.

Data loss prevention (DLP)

DLP solutions monitor, detect and block the unauthorized transfer of sensitive data. They help organizations protect intellectual property and maintain compliance with data protection regulations.

Network segmentation

Network segmentation divides a network into smaller, isolated segments to contain potential threats. It limits lateral movement in case of a breach, reducing the impact of a security incident.

Navigating the aftermath of a cyberattack

Experiencing a cyberattack can be daunting, but a well-orchestrated response can minimize damage and get you back up and running quickly. The following steps outline a comprehensive approach to take after a cyberattack, encompassing incident response, data recovery and reporting.

1. Activate incident response plan

The first step is to activate your incident response plan. This plan should document roles, responsibilities, and procedures to be followed during and after a cyber incident.


●      Assemble the incident response team (typically IT professionals, cybersecurity experts, and key stakeholders).

●      Isolate affected systems to prevent the spread of the attack.

●      Assess the nature and scope of the incident.

2. Containment and eradication

After assessing the extent of the breach, focus on containing the attack and eradicating the malicious elements from the system.


●      Identify and disconnect compromised devices or systems from the network.

●      Apply patches or updates to eliminate vulnerabilities exploited by the attacker.

●      Conduct thorough system scans to ensure complete eradication of malware.

3. Data recovery

Once the threat is contained, initiate the process of data recovery to restore affected systems and services.


●      Restore systems and files from recent, uncompromised backups.

●      Prioritize critical systems and data for recovery.

●      Verify the integrity of recovered data to ensure it is free from malware.

4. Communication and notification

Transparent and timely communication is crucial during a cyber incident. Keep stakeholders informed about the situation and potential impact.


●      Notify internal teams, including IT, legal, and management, about the incident.

●      Communicate with external stakeholders, such as customers, partners and regulatory bodies, as required.

●      Provide clear, accurate and consistent updates on the incident's progress.

5. Legal and regulatory compliance

Ensure compliance with legal and regulatory requirements pertaining to data breaches and cybersecurity incidents.


●      Consult with legal counsel to understand reporting obligations and liabilities.

●      Comply with data breach notification laws by reporting to relevant authorities.

●      Collaborate with regulatory bodies as necessary to address compliance concerns.

6. Forensic analysis

Conduct a thorough forensic analysis to understand the attack vector, identify vulnerabilities, and gather evidence for potential legal actions.


●      Engage digital forensics experts to analyze the incident.

●      Document the attack timeline, as well as the tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) employed by the attacker.

●      Preserve evidence for potential law enforcement involvement.

7. Post-incident review and lessons learned

Once the incident is resolved, conduct a comprehensive review to identify strengths, weaknesses and areas for improvement in the incident response process.


●      Facilitate a post-mortem meeting with the incident response team.

●      Document lessons learned and update incident response plans accordingly.

●      Implement necessary changes to enhance cybersecurity measures.

8. Continuous monitoring and adaptation

Employ continuous monitoring to detect any signs of persistent threats and adapt cybersecurity measures accordingly.


●      Deploy advanced threat detection tools for continuous monitoring.

●      Regularly update and test incident response plans to address evolving threats.

●      Stay informed about emerging cybersecurity trends and vulnerabilities.

Summing it up

In the face of evolving cyberthreats, organizations and individuals must be prepared to mount a proactive and well-coordinated response. This comprehensive guide outlines the crucial steps to take after a cyberattack, offering a roadmap for incident response, data recovery and reporting.

By quickly activating incident response plans, containing and eradicating threats, and fostering transparent communication, organizations can minimize the impact of cyber incidents. An emphasis on continuous learning through post-incident reviews ensures adaptive cybersecurity strategies.

Embracing a security-minded culture is the first step to safeguarding digital assets and maintaining system integrity, and the thorough understanding of cyberattacks presented in this article will set you on the right path.

About Acronis

A Swiss company founded in Singapore in 2003, Acronis has 15 offices worldwide and employees in 50+ countries. Acronis Cyber Protect Cloud is available in 26 languages in 150 countries and is used by over 20,000 service providers to protect over 750,000 businesses.